Question MCQ1 : The point of divergence between dispute settlement and dispute resolution lies in what?
Answer: ending a dispute, identifying the causal factors and dealing with them

Question MCQ2 : Which of the following is NOT an outcome of judgement when the plaintiff is successful
Answer: Ensure effective arbitration, award damages and enforce a right

Question MCQ3 : Conflict resolution strategies involve all BUT one of the following. Identify the wrong option
Answer: Interference

Question MCQ4 : The mediator as a process person is like
Answer: Facilitator

Question MCQ5 : How many essential elements did Michael Lund identify in a complete conflict prevention planning?
Answer: Five

Question MCQ6 : One of the criticisms of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) strategies is that
Answer: They are private and are not in the public record or exposed to public scrutiny

Question MCQ7 : Which of the following does not constitute part of international law? 
Answer: national law

Question MCQ8 : Which of the following best describes conflict management?
Answer: It assumes that conflicts are long-term processes that often cannot be quickly resolved

Question MCQ9 : A phase in the life cycle of conflict where parties may not wish to countenance any further losses and are prepared to commit to a settlement is described as  
Answer: Ripe moment

Question MCQ10 : Which of these factors may NOT pose a serious constraint on any mediation effort? 
Answer: Resources and persistence

Question MCQ11 : Mutual adjustment is one of the key causes of the changes that occur during
Answer: Negotiation

Question MCQ12 : How many are the basic sources of trust mediator? 
Answer: 3

Question MCQ13 : Who has written extensively on early warning response and prevention of violent conflict and has argued cogently for more emphasis on and investment in efforts to understand the impacts of preventive/response measures.
Answer: Michael Lund

Question MCQ14 : Ending a dispute as quickly and amicably as possible is 
Answer: Dispute Settlement

Question MCQ15 : To achieve complete resolution of a conflict requires making significant changes that restructure the following institutional structures of the society EXCEPT
Answer: Geographical changes

Question MCQ16 : Identify the one that is not part of major strategies for conflict resolution in this modern world
Answer: Blood covenant

Question MCQ17 : Which group is NOT among the groups that are most vulnerable in armed conflict
Answer: Military/combatant

Question MCQ18 : Which group is NOT among the groups that are most vulnerable in armed conflict
Answer: Military/combatant

Question MCQ19 : Which of the following is NOT part of peace building agents?
Answer: Combatants, insurgents and militants

Question MCQ20 : Communication consist of the following components EXCEPT 
Answer: Noise/manipulating

Question MCQ21 : The full meaning of IHL is 
Answer: International Humanitarian Law

Question MCQ22 : Which law lays down the minimum protection and standards applicable to situations where people are most vulnerable in armed conflict? 
Answer: International Humanitarian law

Question MCQ23 : A phase in the life cycle of conflict where parties wish to countenance any further losses and are prepared to commit to a settlement is described as  
Answer: Ripe moment

Question MCQ24 : In the simplest terms, negotiation means 
Answer: A discussion between two or more disputants who are trying to work out a solution to their problem

Question MCQ25 : Peacebuilding activities geared towards addressing basic causes of conflict is
Answer: The structural dimension of peacebuilding

Question MCQ26 : What gives a mediator the opportunity to control aspects of interaction?
Answer: Procedural strategies

Question MCQ27 : Women have successfully formed their own political party and raised the profile of women in politics in __________ 
Answer: Northern Ireland

Question MCQ28 : Name the two women that wrote a report which provided a wealth of information on the impact of conflict on women and gave the suffering a human face
Answer: Elisabeth Rehn and Ellen John Sirleaf

Question MCQ29 : Women and girls’ education improve all but one of the following 
Answer: Patriarchy

Question MCQ30 : In which country did the government and the UNITA rebels provided 13 separate amnesties for each other
Answer: Angola

Question MCQ31 : One of the reasons for Peace building is to prevent conflict from  
Answer: Re-emerging

Question MCQ32 : In any human organisation conflicts are _______
Answer: inevitable

Question MCQ33 : Choose the one that does NOT belong to the three main strategies or techniques being used by mediators to intervene in a conflict situation
Answer: Instructive strategies

Question MCQ34 : Which meditative strategy adopts threats of withdrawals
Answer: Directive strategies

Question MCQ35 : All BUT one of the following are elements of information tools in early warning system 
Answer: Rebels

Question MCQ36 : Who are the people; officials or unofficial who get involved in Conflict resolution strategies and skills?
Answer: Mediators

Question MCQ37 : A competitive approach to conflict resolution between parties is generally considered  
Answer: destructive

Question MCQ38 : Once the initial efforts at resolution of conflict fails, it leads to
Answer: intensification

Question MCQ39 : Cooperative and competitive approaches are processes of 
Answer: Conflict Resolution

Question MCQ40 : Conflict management correctly assumes that conflicts resolution processes are
Answer: Long term

Question MCQ41 : Social conflict is a natural occurrence between humans who are involved in
Answer: relationships

Question MCQ42 : Adversarial strategies that could be used for conflict resolution includes
Answer: litigation

Question MCQ43 : The conciliator usually has NO authority to seek evidence or call
Answer: witness

Question MCQ44 : The most powerful form of intervention strategies are facilitation and
Answer: Directive

Question MCQ45 : Pacifism means
Answer: don't settle conflicts with violence

Question MCQ46 : Find some middle ground and "work out an agreement to a conflict is
Answer: compromise

Question MCQ47 : When conflict parties are tired of hostilities and seek solution to a conflict, it is said to be in a state of
Answer: ripeness

Question MCQ48 : Towards the end of the 20th Century there was genocide in the civil war of
Answer: Rwanda

Question MCQ49 : All EXCEPT one of the following are essentials elements to be found in a complete conflict prevention planning and decision cycle as espoused by Michael Lund  
Answer: Extraction of information by force

Question MCQ50 : All EXCEPT one of the following organisations is not an international one
Answer: League of Imams

Question FBQ1 : The funds for developing series of pilot courses dealing with Early Warning and Preventive Measures were provided by British and ____ governments
Answer: Italian

Question FBQ2 : In reality, people are ____ creature and that is why they react to situations differently 
Answer: Emotional

Question FBQ3 : ____ are the conceptions that parties have of the situation and its risks 
Answer: Frame

Question FBQ4 : Dispute ____ does not address the underlying causes of conflict like conflict transformation 
Answer: Settlement

Question FBQ5 : Women, War, and Peace” is a report by Elizabeth Rehn and John Sir ____ 
Answer: Leaf

Question FBQ6 : The code name (in abbreviation )for United Nations Peace keeping in Angola from 1995–1998 is called ____ 
Answer: UNITA

Question FBQ7 : Offering each party in conflict incentives, promises of support, or threats of diplomatic sanction is a ____ strategies of mediation 
Answer: Directive

Question FBQ8 : Philip C. ____ in 1948 defined International Law as “Law applicable to relations between states 
Answer: Jessup

Question FBQ9 : The Community Court system for transitional justice in Rwanda is called ____ 
Answer: Gacaca

Question FBQ10 : The optional protocol to the communication on the Right of the child of 2000 is derived from ____ convention of 1949
Answer: Geneva

Question FBQ11 : Future ____ is a situation whereby parties form a vision of the shared future they are trying to build during negotiation 
Answer: Imaging

Question FBQ12 : What parties in negotiation are ready to give up or concede is technically called ____  
Answer: Trade-off  

Question FBQ13 : A discussion between two or more disputants who are trying to work out a solution to their problem or issue at stake is known as ____ 
Answer: Negotiation

Question FBQ14 : Win–lose outcomes in conflict resolution is associated with ____ approach 
Answer: Competitive  

Question FBQ15 : ____ is a form of legal alternative to litigation whereby the parties to a dispute agree to submit their respective position (through agreement or hearing) to a third party for 
Answer: Arbitration  

Question FBQ16 : International law is derived from custom, general principles of law and ____  
Answer: Treaties  

Question FBQ17 : ____ is the court where inter states disputes or conflicts between states or countries are resolved 
Answer: International Court of Justice A

Question FBQ18 : ____ is a wide range of activities associated with capacity building, reconciliation and societal transformation 
Answer: Peace building  

Question FBQ19 : Sustainable peace is characterized by the absence of physical and _____ violence
Answer: Structural  

Question FBQ20 : The United Nations (UN) document “An Agenda for Peace” was written by ____
Answer: Boutrous Boutrous Ghali  

Question FBQ21 : Rape, child abuse, genocide and torture are examples of ____ committed during times of armed conflict or war
Answer: Crimes

Question FBQ22 : Posture, Gesture and Facial expression are examples of ____. types of communication 
Answer: Non-verbal

Question FBQ23 : A conflict resolution in which there is no winner nor vanquished is referred to as a ____ solution 
Answer: Win-win  

Question FBQ24 : Alternative Dispute Resolution process was first adopted in the ____ 
Answer: United State of America  

Question FBQ25 : Inflammatory language usually tends to ____ conflict rather than deescalate it
Answer: Escalate  

Question FBQ26 : ____ is the body of customary and conventional rules which are considered legally binding by civilized states in their intercourse with each other or one another 
Answer: International Law  

Question FBQ27 : International Humanitarian Law lays down the minimum protection and standards applicable to situations where people are most ____ in armed conflict 
Answer: Vulnerable

Question FBQ28 : Conflict usually transforms perception by accentuating the differences between people and ____
Answer: Positions

Question FBQ29 : Arbitration is a form of legal alternative to ____
Answer: Litigation  

Question FBQ30 : Integrative bargaining is also referred to as ____ bargaining
Answer: Interest-based

Question FBQ31 : International Court of Justice is situated in ____ in Netherlands
Answer: Hague  

Question FBQ32 : Michael ____ outlined that “prior appraisal, implementation, monitoring, conflict diagnosis, rescues identification and evaluation” are essential elements in complete conflict prevention planning and decision cycle 
Answer: Lund

Question FBQ33 : The law that deals with maritime commerce is known as ____ law
Answer: Admiralty  

Question FBQ34 : The two most basic orientations required when parties in conflict enter into negotiation process to resolve their differences are competitive and ____
Answer: Cooperative  

Question FBQ35 : ____ strategy is situations whereby mediator brings parties in conflict together in a neutral environment in order to be able to exert some control over the conflict management process
Answer: Procedural

Question FBQ36 : ______ strategy allows mediator to break through a circle of violence by changing the factors that influence the parties’ decision making
Answer: Directive  

Question FBQ37 : “One aspect or form of behaviour will suffice to turn a conflict” TRUE or FALSE _______________
Answer: False

Question FBQ38 : “Carrying out an empathetic analysis of conflict will help you to understand your adversary’s interest” TRUE or FALSE ____________ 
Answer: True  

Question FBQ39 : Monitoring and evaluation is also a form of ____ evaluation
Answer: Retrospective  

Question FBQ40 : The fourth element of the early warning process is the ____ phase 
Answer: Sending  

Question FBQ41 : The resources required for mediating conflicts are resources, persistence, experience and ______ 
Answer: Commitment  

Question FBQ42 : Good _______ demands that both parties take turns in speaking and listening.
Answer: Communication

Question FBQ43 : Mediation is likely to be more successful when parties appear most amenable to_____
Answer: Change

Question FBQ44 : International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes is the most important organ under the _________

Question FBQ45 : There are _____ basic standards of international law
Answer: Ten

Question FBQ46 : "Learning to be a good helper as a way of helping yourself? is synonymous with ______ therapy
Answer: Helper

Question FBQ47 : The Oslo Accords was achieved in the year _______
Answer: 1993

Question FBQ48 : Conflict resolution requires identifying the ____ factors behind the conflict, and finding ways to deal with them.
Answer: Causal

Question FBQ49 : The underlying causes of conflict are embedded in the institutional structure of ____
Answer: Society

Question FBQ50 : Disputants that work cooperatively to negotiate a solution are morelikely to develop a relationship of ____
Answer: Trust